These ten principles offer guidance on ways to design and facilitate effective and engaging virtual workshops that leave faculty feeling better equipped to implement new edtech tools.
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic required academic technology specialists, instructional designers, and educational developers to make a quick shift in how they supported faculty with teaching and technology. Webinars replaced on-site events, and consultations were conducted via virtual office hours. As colleges and universities have transitioned back to on-site instruction, many have continued to provide a mix of on-site and virtual professional development opportunities for faculty, recognizing the benefits this affords in terms of scheduling, preferred modalities, inclusivity, and accessibility.Footnote1
Faculty development offerings at higher education institutions frequently include educational technology (edtech) workshops that address how to use the campus Learning Management System (LMS) and other technology for teaching and learning. These offerings are often structured as thirty- to sixty-minute workshops that focus on a variety of edtech tools and platforms (e.g., Canvas, Poll Everywhere, Padlet, Zoom, Hypothes.is, Google Forms, or iPad apps). As educational developers continue their efforts to provide these offerings in multiple formats (on-site and virtual), it is important to pause and reflect on the design and facilitation of these learning experiences.
I share here ten guiding principles that have shaped my design and facilitation of virtual synchronous edtech workshops. These guiding principles are based on lessons learned in both my previous role as a professional learning specialist at a major technology company and my current role as a faculty developer at a university. In the spirit of James M. Lang's book Small Teaching,Footnote2 my hope is that the principles shared here may prompt reflection on the small yet impactful moves academic technology specialists, instructional designers, and educational developers can make to create virtual learning experiences whereby faculty leave feeling better equipped to implement the edtech tools they have learned.
1. Keep It Relevant
When designing virtual edtech workshops, facilitators need to make the "why" clear. Why is this workshop important? How will it help faculty teach more effectively? How will it support student learning? Why should faculty take time out of their busy schedules to attend?
One way to keep relevance at the forefront is by using a pedagogy-integrated approach so that faculty are clear on the value of the edtech workshop. A helpful tip that I learned from a former colleague is to name the workshop itself so that it highlights how the technology works alongside pedagogy. For example, instead of naming an edtech workshop "Introduction to Flip," you might call it "Designing Energizing Discussion Opportunities with Flip." Or, instead of naming an edtech workshop "Using Numbers Forms on the iPad," you might call it "Documenting Student Learning on the iPad." Framing workshops in this way keeps the emphasis on teaching and learning and clearly conveys the value of the workshop to faculty.
Another way to foster relevance in virtual edtech workshops is to design practice activities that are based on the context of faculty members' daily work. For example, if you are facilitating an edtech workshop on a video tool (like Clips, iMovie, Flip, Loom, or Edpuzzle), then have faculty do activities during the session that mirror how they would actually use the tool in their instructional practices (e.g., by recording an introductory video about themselves to add to their syllabi, recording a microlectureFootnote3 about a course-related topic of their choice, or recording a course trailer video to add to the LMS). Having faculty use edtech tools during the workshop as they would actually use the tools for teaching and learning not only helps the workshop feel more relevant and valuable but also gives faculty a jump start on a project that they can use after the workshop is over. It can also help spark new ideas for ways to use the tool for teaching and learning.
2. Provide a Less-Is-More Roadmap
When designing virtual edtech workshops, facilitators can be tempted to try to address as much as possible about a given tool within the hour. However, this can often leave faculty feeling overwhelmed, underprepared, and frustrated. It is much better to teach less material, but to do so deeply. This will allow faculty to learn the material and avoid having to process too much information at once (which can make the skills difficult to remember and apply once the session is done). Rather than packing too much into one workshop, consider breaking the session up into multiple workshops that build upon each other. When workshops are broken up and scaffolded in this way, faculty can focus on learning a particular aspect of an edtech tool in one session, have time to explore and get more comfortable with the tool after the session, and build upon that knowledge in future sessions.
It is also helpful to begin each virtual edtech workshop by providing faculty with a clear roadmap for the session that includes the agenda and the learning outcomes. This helps clarify what faculty should know and be able to do by the end of the session,Footnote4 and it helps them see the "big picture" of how they will get there.Footnote5 Providing the agenda and outcomes also helps faculty determine if the workshop will be a good fit for them in terms of their needs and interests. In my virtual edtech workshops, I typically share the roadmap via a slide entitled "Where We're Headed Today." The slide includes a column on the left that lists the agenda and a column on the right that lists the learning outcomes. I also review the outcomes again at the end of the session, so that faculty can reflect on their progress thus far.
While careful planning prior to the workshop is essential, it is also important to remain flexible with our plans and responsive to the diverse needs and interests of faculty during the workshop. Learning how to adapt on the spot and make adjustments as needed is critical.
3. Set a Positive Tone
The tone we set in our virtual edtech workshops can have a significant impact on faculty members' interest, attitudes, motivation, and willingness to "get messy" with the technology. While conveying genuine interest and excitement about the edtech tools we are teaching is helpful, it is just the start.
We need to empathize with our faculty. Where are they coming from? What do they want and need? What are their fears or concerns? What else do they have on their plates?
We also need to be approachable. Faculty need to know that it is okay to ask questions and not have everything figured out. They need to know that we are willing—and happy—to help.
We need to establish trusting relationships with our faculty—ones that reflect a genuine partnership in support of student learning.
There are many ways (big and small) that we can establish a positive tone in our virtual edtech workshops and create a welcoming and inclusive environment. Below are a few ideas:
- Review the list of registrants and practice pronouncing any names that are unfamiliar to you. Invite faculty to correct you if your pronunciation is inaccurate.
- Set a reminder email to go out the day before the workshop that not only provides the web conferencing details but also conveys a genuine sense of excitement for the learning that will take place.
- Start the workshop a few minutes early. Have welcoming music playing in the background to minimize the "awkward silence" of the virtual setting.
- As faculty join the workshop, greet them by name either in the chat or by coming off mute.
- Have a discussion question or prompt listed on the welcome slide for faculty to respond to in the chat as they arrive. This can help begin the process of fostering connections among faculty.
- Set faculty at ease from the start by letting them know that you welcome their questions, ideas, repeat requests, etc., and let them know the best way to communicate these (e.g., in the chat or using the "raise hand" feature in Zoom).
- Respond to questions and inquiries with grace, making sure to avoid comments or facial expressions that could convey exasperation to faculty who are having difficulty or need additional support. Be patient and convey that you are happy to help.
- At the same time, operate with "generous authority" by "protecting your guests," as Priya Parker explains in her popular book The Art of Gathering.Footnote6 Avoid allowing one person to "take over" the session with their comments and questions, as this can often be detrimental to the experience of everyone else in the workshop. Consider how you can build in systems to address any issues that may be unique to one person's situation (e.g., "That's a great question! I'd love for us to set up a 1:1 pedagogical consultation after this workshop where we can discuss that further. I'll share my email address in the chat so that we can arrange a time to talk.")
- Affirm faculty throughout the workshop. Call out the thoughtful ideas they share in the chat. Thank them for their engagement in the session. Encourage them to help each other and invite them to share any prior knowledge or experiences they have that could be beneficial to the group. Leverage the collective wisdom and expertise that is in the virtual room.
- Honor their time by ending the workshop on time.
4. Make It Active, Not Passive
I have attended virtual edtech workshops where the facilitator spent much of the time explaining how a tool works and showing attendees how to use the tool, while attendees mostly listened and watched. However, if the goal is for faculty to become adept at using the tool, then they need to have active learning opportunities where they can explore, practice, try, and apply during the session. Simply listening to and watching the facilitator use the tool will not suffice; direct opportunities to engage (with the support of the facilitator) are key.
One option is to "chunk" the session using the Demo/Practice format. Here, you explain or demo a small skill, give faculty a few minutes to practice, check in with them via Zoom reactions and/or in the chat, and then repeat that process throughout the workshop. For example, when facilitating a faculty workshop at my university about how to use Flip (formerly Flipgrid) to design more engaging discussion and reflection opportunities for their students, I used the Demo/Practice format to break the workshop up into chunks, as listed in table 1. Each chunk included a few minutes of me explaining and demoing a process in Flip, followed by interaction time for faculty to practice the tool and share ideas with each other.
A. As faculty joined the workshop, they responded to this prompt on the welcome slide: "What is one way that you use videos in your courses?"
Faculty shared their responses to the welcome prompt in the chat as they waited for the workshop to begin.
B. I welcomed faculty to the workshop, reviewed our virtual meeting norms, and provided the roadmap for the session. (2 min.)
What Is Flip?
I provided a brief overview of Flip. I then shared my personal experiences using Flip as a professor and literature on the benefits of Flip. (5 min.)
Faculty shared in the chat which benefits of Flip resonated with them the most. (1 min.)
Signing Up for an Account
I explained how to sign up for a Flip account. (1 min.)
Faculty signed up for a Flip account. (1 min.)
I demoed the process for creating groups in Flip. (5 min.)
Faculty created a sample group in Flip. (2 min.)
I demoed the process for posting topics in Flip. (6 min.)
Faculty created a sample topic in Flip. (2 min.)
I explained how to invite students to groups or topics on Flip. (2 min.)
Faculty explored the different invitation options. (1 min.)
Recording & Interacting
A. I demoed how to record videos in Flip and provided an overview of the different special effects and features. (10 min.)
A. Faculty recorded a sample video in Flip that incorporated at least three of the special effects I showed them. (4 min.)
B. I demoed the different options for interacting with video posts on Flip (e.g., liking videos or adding comments). (3 min.)
B. Faculty watched and interacted with another colleague's video post. (2 min.)
A. I asked faculty to share ideas for how Flip could be used for teaching and learning. (1 min.)
A. Faculty shared teaching and learning ideas in the chat or used the "raise hand" feature in Zoom to come off mute and share. (4 min.)
B. I shared additional possibilities for how Flip could be used for teaching and learning. (3 min.)
Closing & Feedback
I wrapped up the session by revisiting the objectives, providing additional resources, and obtaining feedback from faculty (5 min.)
Faculty listened and completed the feedback form.
Chunking the Flip workshop using the Demo/Practice format allowed faculty to build comfort and confidence in using the tool. They were able to explore the tool firsthand, ask questions, and get immediate feedback. They also experienced the benefits of the tool both as learners in the workshop and as faculty members planning to incorporate the tool into their instructional practices. In fact, by the end of one of my Flip workshops, a faculty member expressed that she was going to use the time between the workshop and her next class to create a Flip activity for her students to do that very day! Another faculty member shared that she was going to incorporate Flip into an assignment for one of her weekend classes. This is what we ultimately want in any edtech workshop experience: for faculty to leave saying, "Yes! I can do this . . . and I will!"
5. Provide Other Hands-On Learning Opportunities
While Demo/Practice is one way to structure active learning opportunities during virtual edtech workshops, it is not the only option. One alternative is the Explore with Me format, where faculty follow along with you on their own devices, and you check in with them regularly along the way (and reteach as needed). I frequently use this approach in my iPad workshops, having faculty create content on their devices right alongside me. You can also incorporate Skills Checks, where after some Demo/Practice or Explore with Me cycles, you give faculty a set of tasks to complete on their own within a set period of time. This can help faculty engage in retrieval practice,Footnote7 get more comfortable with the tool, and identify areas where reteaching or review would be helpful.
Another strategy is incorporating Sandbox Time, where you give faculty time to explore the tool on their own. Sandbox Time can be a great way to give faculty choice in what they explore. It can also help surface questions they may have about how to use the tool or ideas about how the tool can be used in a teaching and learning context.
Regardless of the format used, consider how you can structure learning opportunities in ways that are clear and easy to follow. This includes demonstrating processes multiple times, clarifying the meanings of any technical terms, making sure that closed captioning is enabled for accessibility purposes, and providing a brief written summary of any verbal steps or directions in the chat or on a slide.
6. Include Planning Time
For longer virtual edtech workshops (e.g., ninety-minute or two-hour workshops), I like to incorporate dedicated Planning & Application Time. This is typically a twenty- to thirty-minute block of time wherein, after learning about and practicing the edtech tool together, faculty are asked to: (1) consider how they will apply what they have learned to the courses they teach; and (2) act by using the time to either plan ways to incorporate the tool into their upcoming lectures or create relevant course resources with the tool. Basically, my goal is for faculty to use the dedicated Planning & Application Time to do whatever would help them implement what they have learned while I am available to provide immediate support. During this Planning & Application Time, I put a timer on the screen, mute myself, and let faculty work independently. I also encourage faculty to message me in the chat or unmute themselves if they have questions, want to brainstorm ideas, or would like me to demonstrate a process again.
I have found that providing dedicated Planning & Application Time during workshops allows faculty to get a head start on creating something that they can use in their teaching. It also increases the likelihood of them continuing that work after the session ends. Often, I will wrap the Planning & Application Time with a debriefing activity that invites faculty to share their responses to questions such as the following: (1) What did you work on during this time? (2) What did you discover or learn through the process? (3) What remaining questions do you have? (4) What additional teaching and learning ideas did this generate? (5) What are your next steps?
As I shared once in a tweet, "one of the most valuable things we can provide in any faculty development or professional development experience is time. Time to practice. Time to explore. Time to discuss. Time to reflect. Time to apply. Time to create."Footnote8
7. Foster a Collaborative Environment
Often, the most powerful moments in virtual edtech workshops occur when faculty are given time and space to interact with each other. Pose discussion questions throughout the workshop so faculty can share their thoughts and ideas. Invite faculty who already have experience using the edtech tool to share their experiences with their colleagues. Encourage faculty to help each other out (e.g., by responding to each other's questions in the chat). You can also create more formal collaboration opportunities via breakout rooms or by encouraging faculty to contribute their ideas to a shared document or collaborative space (e.g., Google Docs, Google Slides, Padlet, or Jamboard).
Virtual edtech workshops can also be a valuable space to normalize tech challenges. Often, faculty may feel that they are the only ones who struggle with technology. However, we have all faced situations where things did not go according to plan and when the technology did not work as it should. This may even occur during the virtual edtech workshop itself! While I do not want to dismiss or minimize the stress or irritation that technical issues can cause, I do think that they present an opportunity to normalize technical issues and to show faculty how they can troubleshoot and overcome them. I personally try to embrace glitches calmly and with a sense of humor, and I often "think aloud" to share how I am trying to rectify the situation (e.g., "Whoops! It looks like this app froze. Let me go ahead and try to force quit it by . . . ").
8. Infuse Pedagogical Techniques Throughout
One of my personal aims in every virtual edtech workshop is to model pedagogical strategies as I facilitate the session. This way, faculty can both learn about the edtech tool that I am teaching them to use and learn from the way the session is facilitated. My hope is that faculty will be able to take the small pedagogical strategies that they observe and experience during the session and implement them in their own teaching practices with their students.
I often use Harvard's Project Zero Thinking Routines to structure the discussion and reflection activities in my workshops. For example, during a workshop on the Clips app, I start by showing faculty an example of an introductory video I made in Clips. Faculty then use an adapted version of the See Wonder Connect x2 thinking routine to share their observations, questions, and connections. At the end of my augmented reality workshop, faculty use the Compass Points thinking routine to share their reactions, thoughts, and feelings about augmented reality.
In addition to thinking routines, I regularly incorporate other pedagogical strategies and protocols into my virtual edtech workshops. For example, I use Mentimeter polls to activate faculty members' prior knowledge, monitor understanding, and prompt reflection. I have used the Concept Attainment Strategy to introduce faculty to the concept of augmented reality.Footnote9 I have also had faculty do virtual gallery walks via QR codes to explore examples of teaching and learning resources that can be created with the edtech tool we are exploring.Footnote10 During a workshop about annotation tools on the iPad, faculty read an article and use the Four A's text protocol to mark up the text. Additional teaching strategies that I have used in my virtual edtech workshops include quick writes, waterfall chats,Footnote11 virtual four corners, and tic-tac-toe choice boards. Furthermore, the overall structure and organization of my edtech workshops (with chunked and scaffolded content, frequent opportunities for faculty to engage with the content and each other, and regular checks for understanding) also demonstrate how lectures can be broken up.
Faculty could easily replicate and implement all of these thinking routines, discussion protocols, and active learning strategies with their own students. When at least one pedagogical strategy is intentionally incorporated into each virtual edtech workshop, faculty leave each session with a bonus (often no-tech or low-tech) technique that they can utilize in their instructional practices. If you are looking for additional pedagogical strategies that you can incorporate into your virtual edtech workshops, I have curated a list of some of my favorite teaching strategy resources on my website.
9. "Cauliflower" Edtech Tools
You might be wondering to yourself what the vegetable cauliflower has to do with edtech. Well, in a recent Edutopia article, I wrote about how cauliflower has been "reimagined" and used for so many different food products in recent years.Footnote12 Just as there is much innovation occurring with regards to the use of cauliflower, I believe it is important to help faculty to explore the many ways they can use a given edtech tool for teaching and learning. For a concrete example of what "cauliflowering" an edtech tool looks like, check out this resource I made that highlights 20 different ways professors can use Flip in their classrooms.
To help faculty "cauliflower" edtech tools, it is important to build time into the workshop when faculty can share ideas for how the edtech tool can be used for teaching and learning. For example, short debrief sessions could be included throughout the workshop, asking faculty questions such as, "How might this feature be useful for teaching?" and "How might this feature be useful for learning?" Or a formal brainstorming activity could be included near the end of the workshop. You could put a few minutes on a timer, challenge faculty to generate as many ideas as they can for how the edtech tool can be used for teaching and learning, and then have them share afterwards. By "cauliflowering" edtech tools, faculty will be able to go deeper with the tools that they have at their disposal and realize their full potential.
10. End Well
How we end a virtual learning experience is just as important as how we begin it. Oftentimes, the last few minutes of virtual edtech workshops can feel rushed, as facilitators try to get in just one more thing about the tool. However, I believe it is important to find a good stopping point, provide some meaningful time to wrap up the learning journey together, and end on time. In my design of virtual edtech workshops, I typically include five Rs as part of my ending: reflection, resources, reminders, reactions, and recognition.
- Reflection: It is important to provide time for faculty to reflect, as reflection strengthens learning.Footnote13 There are a variety of techniques that can be used to structure this reflection. One strategy that I learned from a former colleague is the 5-5-5 Action Plan, whereby faculty reflect on what they plan to do in the next 5 minutes, 5 days, and 5 weeks. You can also have faculty do a Geometric Forms reflection, a 3-2-1 reflection, or a thinking routine such as "I Used to Think… Now I think…" or Headlines. Or, you can simply have faculty use the chat to share a next step, takeaway, or one thing they would share with a colleague who was unable to attend the workshop.
- Resources: Oftentimes, edtech workshops address a lot of key features or steps that may be difficult to remember once the session is over. I typically record my virtual edtech workshops so that faculty can go back and watch the sessions as many times as needed for practice. Christina Moore recommends putting together a YouTube playlist of workshops that faculty can easily access on their own time.Footnote14 I also typically provide a one-pager or infographic at the end of each workshop that explains the key features or steps for using the edtech tool, summarizes the teaching and learning ideas, and provides additional resources. Some of the one-pagers include QR codes that faculty can scan if they prefer to watch a tutorial video instead. The one-pagers and infographics serve as quick reference guides that faculty can refer to as often as needed after the session. One helpful tool for creating "how-to" resources for faculty is Scribe. With Scribe, you can simply record yourself as you complete a process on your computer, and Scribe will automatically generate a "how-to" guide with directions and screenshots! You can also use Wakelet or Padlet to create collections of resources that you can easily share with faculty. With workshop recordings, one-pagers, and other supplementary resources, faculty are provided with multiple means for learning how to use the edtech tools effectively. These resources also provide access for faculty who cannot attend the workshops live.Footnote15
- Reminders: The ending of a workshop is a great opportunity to build excitement for what's to come and remind faculty of the different ways that they can seek support. I usually highlight a few upcoming workshops and what faculty can look forward to learning in them. I also provide my contact information so that faculty can schedule 1:1 or small-group pedagogical consultations to receive personalized support. To provide a one-stop-shop for everything that was shared in the session, I send a follow-up email to all workshop registrants that includes the workshop recording, resources, my contact information for pedagogical consultations, and links to upcoming workshops. Follow-up emails can also be a great place to solicit information for Faculty Spotlights, where faculty can share how they are using the edtech tool to enhance teaching and learning in their classes.
- Reactions: Feedback is critical in my design of virtual edtech workshops, and it has helped me to refine my sessions and overall approach so that I can continuously improve. I ask faculty to share their thoughts, suggestions, reactions, and takeaways via Qualtrics or Google Forms. I also offer to hang out for a few minutes after the workshop is over in case anyone has additional questions or wants to chat more.
- Recognition: At the end of each virtual edtech workshop, I share my sincere gratitude to faculty for taking time out of their busy schedules to come and learn. I thank them for their engagement, for the thoughtful ideas and questions they shared, for the ways they stretched my thinking, for their willingness to try, and for all the other ways they contributed to our learning journey. I also wrap by emphasizing the Power of One; that is, they should not feel compelled to do everything they just saw and practiced immediately. All they need to do is take one meaningful next step.
Feedback about the design and facilitation of my virtual edtech workshops has been very positive. Faculty often comment on how engaging and applicable they are and say how much they appreciate having time to practice. However, I am most encouraged by the comments from faculty who share their excitement to implement the edtech tools with their students, their increased confidence in doing so, and their desire to learn more. I am also thankful for the trusting relationships I have been able to build with faculty over time. The unexpected challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic have presented a unique opportunity for me to develop and strengthen my virtual facilitation skills, and I am grateful for the lessons I have learned along the way. I look forward to continuing to learn and grow in my craft as I reflect on my practices, review feedback, and glean from the wisdom and expertise of others.
In our work as academic technology specialists, instructional designers, and educational developers, we have the incredible opportunity to partner with faculty and help them explore how they can effectively integrate content, pedagogy, and technology to enhance student learning. By taking the time to pause and reflect on our practices, we can design and facilitate virtual learning experiences that actively engage faculty and make the learning stick.
- Amy Kuntz, Sara Davis, and Erica Fleming, "7 Ways the Pandemic Changed Faculty Development," EDUCAUSE Review, May 3, 2022. Jump back to footnote 1 in the text.
- James Lang, Small Teaching: Everyday Lessons from the Science of Learning, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass, 2021). Jump back to footnote 2 in the text.
- Tolulope Noah, "Microlectures 101: What, Why, & How?," Faculty Focus, February 13, 2023. Jump back to footnote 3 in the text.
- Lorin W. Anderson and David R. Krathwohl, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, 2nd ed. (Longman: New York, 2001), 23; Linda B. Nilson, Teaching at Its Best: A Research-Based Resource for College Instructors, 3rd ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010), 17–18; Barbara Gross Davis, Tools for Teaching, 2nd ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009), 150. Jump back to footnote 4 in the text.
- Nilson, Teaching, 7–8, 132; Davis, Tools, 157; Susan A. Ambrose, Michael W. Bridges, Michele DiePietro, Marsha C. Lovett, and Marie K. Norman, How Learning Works: 7 Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010), 60–61. Jump back to footnote 5 in the text.
- Priya Parker, The Art of Gathering: How We Meet and Why It Matters (New York: Riverhead Books, 2018), 81–87. Jump back to footnote 6 in the text.
- Pooja K. Agarwal, Henry L. Roediger III, Mark A. McDaniel, and Kathleen B. McDermott, How to Use Retrieval Practice to Improve Learning (St. Louis: Washington University, 2020). Jump back to footnote 7 in the text.
- Tolulope Noah (@DrToluNoah), Twitter, May 17, 2022, 4:27 pm. Jump back to footnote 8 in the text.
- Jennifer Gonzalez, "How to Use the Concept Attainment Strategy," Cult of Pedagogy (website), December 10, 2013. Jump back to footnote 9 in the text.
- Tolulope Noah, "8 Ways to Use QR Codes in Higher Education Classrooms," EDUCAUSE Review, August 10, 2022. Jump back to footnote 10 in the text.
- Ngodard, "Engagement Strategies: The Waterfall Chat," HCSS Blog, May 24, 2021. Jump back to footnote 11 in the text.
- Tolulope Noah, "A Handy Framework for Choosing Edtech," Edutopia, September 1, 2022. Jump back to footnote 12 in the text.
- Peter C. Brown, Henry L. Roediger III, and Mark A. McDaniel, Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press), 26–27. Jump back to footnote 13 in the text.
- Christina Moore, "Mobile-Mindful: Teaching and Learning Re-Imagined," YouTube, November 18, 2022. Jump back to footnote 14 in the text.
- Kuntz, Davis, and Fleming, "7 Ways." Jump back to footnote 15 in the text.
Tolulope (Tolu) Noah is Instructional Learning Spaces Coordinator at California State University, Long Beach.
© 2023 Tolulope (Tolu) Noah